Male. Note: vermiculated patterned sides.
  • Female. Lacks white chin patch of female Common Merganser.
  • Male. Note: vermiculated patterned sides.
  • Female. Note: red head blending with gray body (lacks white chin patch of female).
  • Female
  • Male

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Red-breasted Merganser

Mergus serrator
The swans, geese and ducks are mid-sized to large birds most commonly found on or near water. Most have plump bodies, long necks and short wings. Most feed while on the water, diving or merely tilting their bodies so that their heads and necks are submerged to search for fish, plants and invertebrates. Washington representatives of the order all belong to one family:
The waterfowl family is represented in Washington by two distinct groups—the geese and swans, and the ducks. Whistling-ducks are also considered a distinct subfamily, and, although they have not been sighted in Washington in many years, Fulvous Whistling-Ducks have been recorded historically in Washington and remain on the official state checklist. All members of the waterfowl family have large clutches of precocial young. They hatch covered in down and can swim and eat on their own almost immediately after hatching.
Common winter on coast. Uncommon fall and winter east.

    General Description

    The ragged-crested Red-breasted Merganser winters in Washington but breeds farther to the north. The adult male in breeding plumage has a reddish-brown mottled breast, white neck collar, green head, and red eyes. The serrate orange bill is very thin. The back is black and white, and the flanks are gray. The female has an overall gray body, reddish-brown head, and reddish eyes. There is no obvious white chin-patch as in the female Common Merganser. The juvenile is similar to the female but has a white bar across its face. Non-breeding adult males appear similar to females as well.


    Breeding habitat is in the tundra and boreal-forest zones. Breeding occurs on fresh, brackish, and saltwater wetlands and in sheltered bays. During migration and in winter, Red-breasted Mergansers occur mostly on salt water, in coastal bays, estuaries, and other protected coastal areas.


    Red-breasted Mergansers are typically found in small flocks, rather than huge rafts. They forage by diving and swimming under water, sometimes in cooperative groups, working schools of fish into shallow water.


    While the young eat mostly aquatic insects, adults primarily eat fish. Crustaceans and other aquatic creatures are also eaten.


    Females first breed at the age of two years. Pairs generally form in late winter and during spring migration, although some evidence of pairing may be evident in the late fall. Breeding is late in the season, and often the young do not fledge until September. The nest is located in a sheltered spot on the ground, usually near water. It is a simple depression lined with vegetation and down. The female lays 7 to 10 eggs, and sometimes lays eggs in the nests of other females. Males usually leave when incubation begins. Incubation is by the female alone and lasts for 28 to 35 days. Within a day or so of hatching, the young follow the female to water where they feed themselves. Often, in areas of high-density nesting, two or more broods will join and form a crèche, with one or more females tending them. Within a few weeks, the females typically abandon the young, who cannot fly until they are about two months old.

    Migration Status

    Red-breasted Mergansers usually migrate in pairs or small flocks. Males leave the breeding grounds in mid-summer on their molt migration, but the destinations are not known. Spring migration begins in March and peaks in April, continuing into May. Birds are typically on the breeding grounds by mid- to late May. In the fall, birds start arriving in September, although most birds arrive on the wintering grounds in late November.

    Conservation Status

    Breeding populations in the North Pacific seem to have increased over the last ten years. Hunting is not a major source of mortality, but a number have been shot illegally due to their suspected impact on salmon and other commercial fish. The extent of their impact is not known, but it is not likely that they are causing significant salmon mortality.

    When and Where to Find in Washington

    Red-breasted Mergansers can be found during migration on major lakes in eastern Washington, especially at Banks Lake (Grant County). They are much more common in western and coastal Washington during migration and in winter. They are abundant in Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and in major estuaries along the outer coast.

    Abundance Code DefinitionsAbundance

    C=Common; F=Fairly Common; U=Uncommon; R=Rare; I=Irregular
    Pacific Northwest CoastCCCCCRRRUCCC
    Puget TroughCCCCURRRUFCC
    North CascadesRR RR
    West CascadesRRR RR
    East Cascades RR
    Canadian Rockies
    Blue Mountains
    Columbia PlateauRRRR RRR

    Washington Range Map

    North American Range Map

    North America map legend

    Federal Endangered Species ListAudubon/American Bird Conservancy Watch ListState Endangered Species ListAudubon Washington Vulnerable Birds List

    View full list of Washington State's Species of Special Concern